Facts and Figures

Geography

Relative Location:
Eastern Africa, north-west of Somalia, east of Sudan and South Sudan, north of Kenaya, south of Eritrea, and west of Djibouti

Relative Location:
8 00 N, 38 00 E

Continent:
Africa

Area:
total: 1,104,300 sq km
country comparison to the world: 27
land: 1 million sq km
water: 104,300 sq km

Area - comparative:
Slightly less than the combined size of France and Spain
slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,328 km
border countries: Djibouti 349 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, South Sudan 837 km, Sudan 769 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain:
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m
highest point: Ras Dejen 4,533 m

Natural resources:
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 13.19%
permanent crops: 1.01%
other: 85.8% (2011)

Irrigated land:
2,896 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
122 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 5.56 cu km/yr (13%/1%/86%)
per capita: 80.5 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (elev. 613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, causing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

People and Society

Nationality:
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups:
Oromo 34.5%, Amara 26.9%, Somalie 6.2%, Tigrie 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Affar 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, other 11.3% (2007 Census)

Languages:
Oromigna (official regional) 33.8%, Amarigna (Amharic) (official) 29.3%, Somaligna 6.2%, Tigrigna (official regional) 5.9%, Sidamigna 4%, Wolayitigna 2.2%, Guaragigna 2%, Affarigna 1.7%, Hadiyigna 1.7%, Gamogna 1.5%, other 11.7%, English (official) (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (official) (1994 census)

Religions:
Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.6%, traditional 2.6%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.7% (2007 Census)

Population:
93,877,025 (July 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44.4% (male 20,858,061/female 20,813,460)
15-24 years: 19.9% (male 9,258,868/female 9,382,338)
25-54 years: 29.1% (male 13,576,787/female 13,704,595)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 1,772,448/female 1,859,364)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 1,197,519/female 1,453,585) (2013 est.)

Median age:
total: 17.5 years
male: 17.3 years
female: 17.6 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Birth rate:
38.07 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Death rate:
8.87 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70

Net migration rate:

-0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population
country comparison to the world: 120
note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees residing in Sudan is expected to continue for several years; some Sudanese, Somali, and Eritrean refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return to their homes (2013 est.)

Urbanization:
urban population: 17% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population:
ADDIS ABABA (capital) 2.863 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
350 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 31

Infant mortality rate:
total: 58.28 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 29
male: 66.58 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 49.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60 years
country comparison to the world: 193
male: 57.73 years
female: 62.35 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
5.31 children born/woman (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Health expenditures:
4.9% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 143

Physicians density:
0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density:
6.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 34% of population
total: 44% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 66% of population
total: 56% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 29% of population
rural: 19% of population
total: 21% of population
unimproved:
urban: 71% of population
rural: 81% of population
total: 79% of population (2010 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2009)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
1.1% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 191

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
29.2% (2011)
country comparison to the world: 17

Education expenditures:
4.7% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 89

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.7%
male: 50.3%
female: 35.1% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 24.9%
country comparison to the world: 38
male: 19.5%
female: 29.4% (2006)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
former: Abyssinia
abbreviation: FDRE

Government type:
federal republic

Capital:
name: Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples)

Independence:
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)

National holiday:
National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)

Constitution:
ratified 8 December 1994, effective 22 August 1995

Legal system:
civil law system

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012); note - prior to his approval as prime minister, HAILEMARIAM had been acting prime minister due to the death of former Prime Minister MELES
cabinet: Council of Ministers ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections: president elected by both chambers of Parliament for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections
election results: GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 79%, other 21%

Legislative branch:

bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation (or upper chamber responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues) (108 seats; members chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives (or lower chamber responsible for passing legislation) (547 seats; members directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 23 May 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 499, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, HNL 1, FORUM 1, APDO 1, independent 1

Judicial branch:
Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996

National symbol(s):
Abyssinian lion

National anthem:
name: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
note: adopted 1992

Economy

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$103.1 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
$96.39 billion (2011 est.)
$89.67 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$41.89 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
7% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
7.5% (2011 est.)
8% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,200 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
$1,100 (2011 est.)
$1,100 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 46.6%
industry: 14.6%
services: 38.8% (2012 est.)

Labor force:
37.9 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 17

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 85%
industry: 5%
services: 10% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:
29.2% (FY09/10 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30 (2000)
country comparison to the world: 116
40 (1995)

Investment (gross fixed):
22.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66

Budget:
revenues: $6.079 billion
expenditures: $7.219 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
14.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

Public debt:
44.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
44.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: official data cover central government debt, including debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury and treasury debt owned by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.10% (April 2013)
country comparison to the world: 218
33% (2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
14.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
16% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$7.851 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
$6.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$13.35 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
$11.51 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$13.91 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
$11.99 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Agriculture - products:
cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish

Industries:
food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate:
9.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Current account balance:
$-2.95 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
$-1.965 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$3.163 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
$2.957 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
coffee, khat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds

Exports - partners:
Germany 14.2%, China 12.2%, Belgium 7.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.8%, US 6.3%, Italy 5.1% (2011)

Imports:
$10.6 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
$9.694 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles

Imports - partners:
Saudi Arabia 10%, China 9.9%, US 7.6%, India 4.6% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.024 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
$2.671 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$9.956 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
$8.292 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
birr (ETB) per US dollar -
17.8 (2012 est.)
16.9 (2011 est.)
14.41 (2010 est.)
11.78 (2009)
9.57 (2008)

Fiscal year:
8 July - 7 July

Energy

Electricity - production:
4.039 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124

Electricity - consumption:
3.648 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.18 million kW (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
17.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
82.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182

Crude oil - proved reserves:
430,000 bbl (1 January 2012 es)
country comparison to the world: 101

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
49,080 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176

Refined petroleum products - imports:
42,480 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191

Natural gas - proved reserves:
113 billion cu m (1 January 2011 es)
country comparison to the world: 53

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
6.74 million Mt (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
829,000 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 86

Telephones - mobile cellular:
14.127 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 56

Telephone system:
general assessment: inadequate telephone system with the Ethio Telecom maintaining a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service
domestic: the number of fixed lines and mobile telephones is increasing from a small base; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 15 per 100 persons
international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media:
1 public TV station broadcasting nationally and 1 public radio broadcaster with stations in each of the 13 administrative districts; a few commercial radio stations and roughly a dozen community radio stations (2009)

Internet country code:
.et

Internet hosts:
179 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 204

Internet users:
447,300 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 119

Transportation

Airports:
58 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 82

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 41
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 7 (2012)

Railways:
total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the 781 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
country comparison to the world: 102
narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge
note: railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia but is largely inoperable (2008)

Roadways:
total: 36,469 km
country comparison to the world: 93
paved: 6,980 km
unpaved: 29,489 km (2004)

Merchant marine:
total: 8
country comparison to the world: 121
by type: cargo 8 (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Ethiopia is landlocked and uses ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia

Military

Military branches:
Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 19,067,499
females age 16-49: 19,726,816 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 11,868,084
females age 16-49: 12,889,260 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 967,411
female: 981,714 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.9% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 142

Source: CIA: the World Fact Book

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